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11 Before Avicenna, we find several occurrences of this term in the most famous and important metaphysical writing by al-Kindi, the Fabafa al-ula (“First Philosophy”), ed. Abu Rida in Rasa’ it al-Kindi alfalsafiya (Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-'Arab T, 1950), -162, and, more recently, in GLuvres philosophiques et scientifiques d’Al-Kindi, II: Metaphysique et Cosmologie, ed. To these occurrences reported in the glossary of the edition (220), the following have to be added: 95.1, 95.2 (“sujet” Rashed/Jolivet; “existence” Ivry). Brill, 1890), 36.16 (German translation in Alfarabl’s Philosophische Abhandlungen, tr. Druart, “Le traite d’al-Farabi sur les buts de la Metaphysique d’Aristote,” Bulletin de philosophie medmale 24 (1982), 43: “quiddite”; Spanish translation in R. Guerrero, “Al-Farabr y la ‘Metafisica’ de Aristoteles,” La Ciudad de Dios 196 (1983), 211-240; partial English translation in Gutas, Avicenna, 242: “identity”). Marmura [Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1997], 197: “haecceity”). Jabre, Essai sur fe lexique de Ghazali, Contribution a I’etude de la terminologie de Ghazali dans ses principaux ouvrages a I’exception du Tahdfut (Beirut: Publications de l’Universite Libanaise, 1970), no entry is devoted to huwlya or huwahuwlya. Huwahuwiya derives from huwahuwa , meaning “same,” “identical.” This being the case, as far as Avicenna’s Ilahiyat is concerned, the semantic areas of huwiya (“essence” or “existent”) and huwahuwiya (“sameness”) have to be kept distinct. The tables pro- vided in the following sections report, in three parallel columns (from left to right): Avicenna’s text, the corresponding passages in Aristotle’s Metaphysics and their translation in Ustat’s Arabic version of the Metaphysics.

In three of these occurrences (35.14; 95.1; 95.2) huwvya possibly has the meaning “existent.” See al-Kindi, Risala fi md’iyat ma la yumkin an yakun la nihaya la nihaya lahu (“Treatise on the Quiddity of What Cannot be Infinite and What is said to be Infinite”), in GLuvres philosophiques et scientifiques d’Al-Kindi, 3.22. After Avicenna, al-Gazall employs huwlya in the Tahdfut al-Faldsifa (ed. Bouyges [Beirut: Imprimerie Catholique, 1927], 321.5; see The Incoherence of the Philosophers, tr. The emendations of the Cairo edition that are discussed are parenthetically glossed.

P stands for possi- bility, C, for contingency, N for necessity, I for impossibility (I dis- cuss these modal operators below). Craemer-Ruegenberg (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1985) 207- 218. 7 The familiar rules of conversion of assertoric premises are as follow: Aa B — ► Bi A Ai B -fa Bi A Ae B aa fie A I mention the assertorics only to point out that for Avicenna their conversion is not as simple as one finds in Aristotle.

Aa B is to be read as “A applies to all B ”; 5 Ai B means “A applies to some B,” etc. AVICENNA’S RECEPTION OF ARISTOTELIAN MODAL SYLLOGISTICS 5 proof .

Et per idem etiam ostendit nec- essaria non convertatur necessaria, neque universalis contingens particularis. The first volume of Anawati’s translation contains a very provisional list of corrections of c. Anawati (Cairo: Wizarat at-Taqafa wa-l-Irsad al-Qawmi, 1952; hereafter Madhial), 9.17-10.7; English translation in Dimitri Gutas, Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition, Introduction to Reading Avicenna’s Philosophical Works, Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Texts and Studies, IV (Leiden: EJ.

Et similiter dum ait quod negativa de inesse con- vertatur universalis, et contradicit suo sermoni per materias, nam ipse ait quod dum dicimus aliquis homo scribit est contingens, cum eius conversa non sit contingens.

The lexicon of the critical edition of the Latin translation ( Avicenna Latinus, Liber de Philosophia prima sive Scientia divina, I X, 137, reports only twenty occurrences. Jolivet, “Le vocabulaire de l’etre et de la creation dans la Philosophia prima de l’Avicenna Latinus,” in L’elaboration, 42, provides an incomplete summary of the data collected in the lexicon of the critical edition.BEFORE AND AFTER AVICENNA: Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group DA VID C. AL-RAHIM Editors BRILL BEFORE AND AFTER AVICENNA ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY THEOLOGY AND SCIENCE Texts and Studies EDITED BY H. PINGREE VOLUME LII ’ ' 6 8 ' BEFORE AND AFTER AVICENNA Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group EDITED BY DAVID C. AL-RAHIM BRILL LEIDEN • BOSTON 2003 This book is printed on acid-free paper Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Conference of the Avicenna Study Group (1st : 2001 : Yale University) Before and after Avicenna : proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group / edited by David C. 12 [Avi- cenna disagrees] similarly when [Aristotle] says that a negative assertoric [universal proposition] converts with a universal [negative assertoric proposition]. However, [it was given as a premise that] no B is A; this is an absurdity. I have checked the text of the Ilahiyat printed in the Cairo edition (= c) against MS Oxford, Pococke 110 (= PI 10), MS Oxford, Pococke 125 (= PI 25) and the Tehran lithograph (= t). Peters, 1980]; Avicenna Latinus, Liber de Philosophia prima sive Scientia divina, EX, Lexiques, cur. Being deeply, albeit freely, linked to the Metaphysics, the Ildhiyat had a tremendous impact on the reception of the Metaphysics in the subsequent history of medieval philosophy. Huwlya is preferred over mawgud in our texts because of the Arabic translation of the Metaphysics that Avicenna employed in these particular cases. AHMED converts with a particular [contingent affirmative proposition]. Za’id (Cairo: Wizarat at-Taqafa wa-l-Irsad al-Qawmi, 1960). * On the reception of Aristotle’s Metaphysics in the Ildhiyat, see my “Metafisica A, 5, 986a22-26 nell’ Ildhiyydt del Kitdb al-Sifa’ di Ibn Sma,” Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale, 10 (1999), 205-231; id., “From al-Kindf to al-Farabf: Avicenna’s Progressive Knowledge of Aristotle’s Metaphysics according to his Autobiography,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 11.2 (2001), 257-295. D’Onofrio, (Cava de’ Tirreni [Salerno]: Avagliano Editore, 2001), 137-155; id., “Albert The Great and the Preface of Avicenna’s Kitdb al-Sifa’,” in Avicenna and his Heritage, ed. The Case of the Doctrine of Unity,” in Albertus Magnus 1200—2000, ed. First, in them, Avicenna employs an unusual Arabic term, huwlya, to signify “existent.” In the rest of the Ilahlyat , Avicenna uses mawgud, rather than huwlya, to express this very concept.Second, Avicenna in the Ilahlyat always employs huwlya in the meaning of “existent” and “essence,” never in the meaning of “sameness.” As to the first point, huwlya is the rendering of ov in the earl- iest and most extensive Arabic translation of the Metaphysics. 7 Ustat invariably translates ov in the Metaphysics as huwlya . Endress, “Die wissenschaftliche Literatur: Die Entwicklung der Fachsprache,” in Grundriss der Arabischen Philologie, Band III: Supplement, ed. 7 The extant parts of this translation are preserved in Averroes’ Tafsir (“Commen- tary”) of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ; see Averroes, Tafsir ma ba‘d at-Tabi c at , ed. Endress, “The Circle of al-Kindl, Early Arabic Translations from the Greek and the Rise of Islamic Philosophy,” in The Ancient Tradition in Christian and Islamic Hellenism, ed. D’Ancona, “L’influence du vocabulaire arabe: causa prima est esse tantum,” in L’elaboration du vocabulaire philosophique au Moyen Age, Actes du Colloque international de Louvain-la-Neuve et Leuven 12-14 septembre 1998 organise par la Societe intemationale pour I’etude de la Philosophic Medievale, ed. Huwlya is quite commonly used by Arab philosophers, both before and after Avicenna. Michot shows that four literal quotations of the Metaphysics according to Ustat’s translation occur in this text: 45.12—14 (corresponding to A 26, 1023b32-34); 46.3-9 (corresponding to A 5, 101 5b36 — 10 1 6a 1 ; 1016al-4); 47.8-12 (corresponding to Z 11, 1037a22-24); 49.1-5 (corresponding to Z 10, 1035b6-8; Z 10, 1035b 10). Brill, 1998), 1—117, with facing French translation. Goichon, Lexique de la langue philosophique d’Ibn Slna (Avicenne) (Paris: Desclee de Brouwer, 1938), 411-413 (see also ead., “Huwiyya,” EP, 4-645), records eleven occurrences of huwlya (three of which are taken from the Ildhivdt), and trans- lates this term as “ipseite,” “substance individuelle” and “essence.” In the Vocabulaires compares d’Aristote et d’Ibn Slna (Paris: Desclee du Brouwer, 1939), 36a, Goichon regards huwlya in the meaning of “substance individuelle” as equivalent to jiptnxri ovoid, and in the meaning of “ipseite” as equivalent to orcep xo5e xt. 14 On the other hand, nowhere in the Ilahiyat does huwiya mean “sameness,” though it is sometimes translated in this way.All of this does not entail, however, that Ustat’s was the only translation of the Metaphysics that Avicenna used; I point out Avicenna’s use of a different translation in my communication “La ricezione del libro G della Aletafisica nell’ Ilahiyat del Kitab as-Sifa’ di Avicenna,” read at the international con- ference “Aristotele e i suoi esegeti neoplatonici, Logica e ontologia nelle interpre- tazioni greche e arabe,” C. R., Centro di Studio del Pensiero Antico/European Science Foundation, Network Late Antiquity and Arabic Thought, Rome 19—20 October, 2001. An English translation of Abu Rida’s edi- tion, including a comprehensive introduction and a detailed commentary, is avail- able in A. Ivry’s Al-Kindi’s Metaphysics (Albany: SUNY, 1974). The occurrences of huw Tya in Rashed/Jolivet’s edition are at 27.9 (“existence” Rashed/Jolivet; “being” Ivry), 35.14 (“existence” Rashed/Jolivet; “being” Ivry), 97.1, 3, 7, 10, 16 (“exist- ence” Rashed/Jolivet; “being” Ivry). Brill, 1892], 54-60; French translation, with textual remarks, in Th.-A. Among the occur- rences which Goichon does not take into account, huwlya means “existent” in the opening chapter (I, 2) of the Madhal (“Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge”) belong- ing to the Sifa’; see Madhal, 13.5, 13.7 (Latin translation in Avicennae peripatetici philosophi ac medicorum facile primi opera in lucem redacta . The term Avicenna uses in this work to signify “sameness” is distinct from huwiya , albeit similar to it, namely huwahuwiya.

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Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate, fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite. For particular affirmatives, I use “i”; “o” is used for particular negatives. Patterson, “Conversion Principles and the Basis of Aristotle’s Modal Logic,” History and Philosophy of Logic 1 1.2 (1990), 151-172.

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